Gottschalk Antiphonal

Common of Virgins (possibly); Common of One Apostle (possibly)


New Haven, CT, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Zi +1525

General Information

Script, Hands

Written in late Caroline minuscule by Gottschalk, a scribe at Lambach in the late twelfth and early thirteenth century.

General Remarks

Interlinear neumes in the St. Gall style; tonary letters are written in the outer margin of each folio drawn on tiers of a column representing an architectural support.

Original Condition

Page Height 308 – 320 mm
Page Width 240 – 243 mm
Height of Written Area 240 mm
Width of Written Area 186 mm
Number of Columns 1
Number of Lines 26

Book Decoration and Musical Notation

Persons: Gottschalk of Lambach

The responsorial liturgy of most feasts begins with a 3- to 5-line initial (sometimes historiated) in red with red vine-stem decoration and violet bands and foliage drawn by Gottschalk; 1-line red capitals are present in many antiphons as are 1-line initials of responses in thick brown uncials traced or dotted with red; rubrics written in red rustic capitals.



Written and decorated by Gottschalk of Lambach in the last quarter of the twelfth century at the Stiftsbibliothek Lambach, in Upper Austria.


Broken for binding scrap at the Lambach bindery in the 15th century. Leaves used as flyleaves and pastedowns in Lambach incunables. The leaves were removed sometime during WWII, were eventually purchased by the Swiss dealer Hans Zinniker, and are now scattered. Many are presumed lost.