Graduale Varadinense

"Zalka Gradual", Graduale a. u. Ecclesiae Varadinensis


Cluj-Napoca, Biblioteca Academiei Române, Fragm. Cod. Lat. 1

General Information

Title Graduale Varadinense
Shelfmarks Fragm. Cod. Lat. 1
Material Parchment
Place of Origin Prague
Date of Origin 1476-1490
Script, Hands

The text was copied by one hand in a stately textura. Note the peculiar dotting of the i.

Original Condition

Page Height 840 mm
Page Width 570 mm
Number of Columns 1
Line Height 42 – 43 mm
Ruling red ink

The original MS had folio numbering (top centre of pages). [?]ij visible on the hair side, and ł[iber] – on the flesh side.

Current Condition

Dimensions 182-185 x 275-277 mm
More about the Current Condition

restored in 2020

Book Decoration and Musical Notation

  • Musical Notation

    Bohemian rhombic Gothic musical notation. Four-line red staves. Space between stave lines: 12 mm.

  • Content

    • Content Item
      • Text Language Latin
      • Title Graduale
      • Content Description

        The longest surviving text sequence is –us exaudi–.

        A search of the Vulgate text yields the following possible matches: Dominus exaudiet me cum clamavero ad eum
 (Ps. 4, 4); Iste pauper clamavit, et Dominus exaudivit eum 
(Ps. 33, 7); Clamaverunt justi, et Dominus exaudivit eos (Ps. 33, 18); Deus, exaudi orationem meam; auribus percipe verba oris mei. (Ps. 53, 4); et sic deprecatus exaudietur (Eccl. 33, 4); et Dominus exauditor non delectabitur in illis (Eccl. 35, 19); Ego Dominus exaudiam eos
(Isa. 41, 17); Tunc invocabis, et Dominus exaudiet (Isa. 58, 9); dicit Dominus, exaudiam caelos (Ose. 2, 21).  

        Unfortunately, ‘[Clamaverunt justi, et Domin]us exaudi[vit eos]’, corresponding to the Commune plurimorum Martyrum in the Commune Sanctorum of the Gradual, or ‘[De]us, exaudi [orationem meam; auribus percipe verba oris mei]’, the responsory on the feria secunda in the fifth week of Lent (Dominica V Quadragesimae, feria II), which would be good candidates for the text, do not match the music.

      • 1r



    The manuscript was most likely produced in Prague for Johannes Filipec, bishop of Oradea (1476-1490) and Olomouc (1484-1490), and chancellor of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (1485-1490).


    Oradea cathedral. The volumes of the Antiphonale and Graduale Varadinense were most likely dismembered in Northern Hungary. The main body of the Antiphonale is now in Győr, Egyházmegyei Kincstár és Könyvtár, but fragments are scattered from Modra and Bratislava in Slovakia to Budapest, Esztergom, Debrecen and Győr in Hungary. Only rare fragments of the Graduale have survived.

    Host Volume


    Unknown. The fragment was detached at some point in the twentieth century. No provenance notes have survived.


    • Adrian Papahagi, "A Fragment of the Graduale Varadiense at the Romanian Academy Library in Cluj (Kolozsvár)", Magyar Könyvszemle 133 (2017), 455-59.
    • Zsuzsa Czagány (ed.), Antiphonale Varadiense s. XV, Budapest: Research Centre for the Humanities, Institute of Musicology, 2019, 3 vols.